The source data that can actually be collected and prepared to optimize the technical maintenance of railway automation and remote control devices are, in general, largely uncertain. The problem manifests itself in an inaccurate knowledge of the numerical values of the initial parameters or their probabilistic description. Therefore, it becomes apparent that the methods of optimization calculations based on completely certain data are increasingly coming into conflict with reality. The article discusses a methodological approach to the formulation and solution of the problem of optimizing the technical maintenance of railway automation and remote control devices under the conditions of source data uncertainty. Within an integrated approach, it is advisable to consider the minimum specific operating costs and the probability of failure-free operation of railway automation and remote control devices admissible under the safety conditions as the main criteria for optimizing the technical maintenance. The purpose of a formalized solution of probabilistic and uncertain technical maintenance problems is to determine the zone of conditionally optimal values of periodicities, the width of which depends on the degree of certainty of the source data. The final choice of solutions should be made by experts with the use of additional non-formalized criteria. Taking into account the uncertainty factors applied when making decisions about the parameters of the technical maintenance provides several advantages. The first of them is the closest approximation of formalized solution methods to actual operating conditions. The second one is the obligatory nature of multivariate calculations and the possibility to analyze on their basis the consequences of decisions made. Third is the freedom of choice of the most flexible solutions from among the almost equally cost-effective options. And finally, the fourth advantage is the possibility of making more informed decisions and reducing the risk of overspending due to uncertainty.